Caring for Patients with Factor X Deficiency


Issue 2
July 07, 2021



Caring for Patients with Factor X Deficiency



Debra Mulligan Author: Debra Mulligan, RN, Lead REM Clinical Care Coordinator



Disease Overview:

Factor X deficiency is a rare genetic blood disorder that causes the normal clotting process (coagulation) to take longer than normal. This causes people to bleed for a longer of amount of time. Factor X is a clotting protein (also called a clotting factor). Clotting factors are specialized proteins that are essential for proper clotting, the process by which blood clumps together to plug the site of a wound to stop bleeding. Clotting requires a series of reactions to ultimately form a clot to plug a wound. This is referred to as the clotting (coagulation) cascade. The clotting cascade involves different substances in addition to clotting factors. Factor X, which is produced (synthesized) in the liver, eventually interacts with other clotting factors and certain cells or substances, e.g., platelets or fibrinogen, to help to form a clot. Factor X deficiency is caused by a mutation in the F10 gene.

Figure 1: Hereditary Factor X Deficiency


Symptoms & Causes:

The signs and symptoms of Factor X deficiency are highly variable from person to person. Symptoms can develop at any age. Generally, the more severe the disorder, the earlier the symptoms begin. Common symptoms of moderate and severe forms can include:

  • • Bruising easily
  • • Nosebleeds
  • • Bleeding from the mouth and the gums
  • • Occasionally, blood in urine (hematuria)


Affected individuals are at risk of excessive bleeding during or after trauma or surgery. Some individuals may not have any symptoms except for when they experience trauma or surgery. Without treatment, these symptoms can occur throughout life.


What’s Working:

Patients being very diligent and responsible for notifying their providers about their needs.


Condition Management Challenges:

Patient has had challenges during COVID-19; not necessarily any condition management challenges. They have not had any challenges in obtaining his medication when needed.


Care Management Opportunities:

Encourage patients to follow up with hematologist and follow their guidelines. Make sure that dentists are aware of this disease and the protocols that need to be followed. If surgery is needed, ensure the surgeon is aware that the patient will need clotting factor before surgery.





From the Frontline is a series of digital issues developed by Medicalincs Clinical Providers & Care Coordinators. The topics discussed are unique to the patient population served; and does not include any confidential information. Our experts will be sharing their insights based on their frontline experience in coordinating care across the care continuum. By sharing our knowledge, we promote the Medicalincs’ mission of breaking down healthcare management silos; to sustain systems, that save lives!



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